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Mucormycosis (Black Fungus)

Mucormycosis is an disease in immunocompromised patients caused by saprophytic fungi of the order Mucorales. The estimated prevalence of mucormycosis is around 70 times higher in India than that in global data.

The clinical presentations of mucormycosis are classified on the basisof anatomic localization of the disease.

Patients with diabetesmellitus, malignancy and chemotherapy, transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy, on dialysis, extensive skin injury, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk of acquiring mucormycosis.

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is the most common underlying disease associated with mucormycosis in India. There are increasing case reports of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in India. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 and mucormycosis.

An unholy trinity of diabetes, rampant use of corticosteroid in a background of COVID-19 appears to increase the incidence of mucormycosis. All efforts should be made to maintain optimal glucose and use of corticosteroids judiciously in patients with COVID-19.